RS232 Serial Port To TTL Converter Module DB9 Connector 5V, Female Serial TTL, Serial modules / Brush board
The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232 standards (-25 V to + 25V). This makes it difficult to establish a direct link between them to communicate with each other.
The intermediate link is provided through MAX232. It is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply RS232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply. Each receiver converts RS232 inputs to 5V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers (R1 & R2) can accept ±30V inputs. The drivers (T1 & T2), also called transmitters, convert the TTL/CMOS input level into RS232 level.